Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, which is the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States. The city’s population ranks ninth in the U.S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio.The city’s prominence arose from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, and its position along numerous railroad lines. The bulk of the city is in Dallas County, of which it is the county seat; however, sections of the city are in Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816. The United States Census Bureau’s estimate for the city’s population increased to 1,341,075 as of July 1, 2017.
Dallas is one of the fastest-growing cities in the United States. From 2010 to 2016, Dallas recorded the highest net domestic migration in the country, in excess of 300,000. Overall, the Dallas–Fort Worth metro area had the second largest population increase among metro areas in the U.S., which recorded a population of 7,233,323 as of July 1, 2016, an increase of 807,000 people since the 2010 census. Located in North Texas, Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the South and the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States that lacks any navigable link to the sea.
Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle, and later oil in North and East Texas. The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas’s prominence as a transportation hub with four major interstate highways converging in the city, and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center, and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways, and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.
Dallas is rated a “beta(+)” global city. The economy of Dallas is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications and transportation. It serves as the headquarters for 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies including ExxonMobil (Irving), J.C. Penney (Plano), and American Airlines (Fort Worth). The city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds
Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, France also claimed the area but never established much settlement.
In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory. The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, Texians, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas.
In 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841. The origin of the name is uncertain. The general consensus is the city was named after either Dallas, Scotland or after Sen. George Mifflin Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856.
With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, and the Midwest. The Praetorian Building of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time. It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar drivers club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing.
In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited downtown Dallas’s Mexican Park in Little Mexico, the small park was on the corner of Akard and Caruth Street, site of the current Fairmount Hotel. The small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to the Hispanic population that had come to Dallas due to factors like the American Dream, better living conditions or the Mexican Revolution
On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas. The upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president’s life and accomplishments.
On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states. The gunman, later identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m., killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were also injured. This marked the deadliest day for U.S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he was upset about recent police shootings of black men and wanted to kill whites, especially white officers. After hours of negotiation failed, police resorted to a robot-delivered bomb, killing Johnson inside El Centro College. The shooting occurred in an area of hotels, restaurants, businesses, and residential apartments only a few blocks away from Dealey Plaza.
Dallas is the county seat of Dallas County. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385.8 square miles (999.3 km2), 340.5 square miles (881.9 km2) of it being land and 45.3 square miles (117.4 km2) of it (11.75%) water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live.
Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown, the center of the city, along with Oak Lawn and Uptown, areas characterized by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of named districts, including the West End Historic District, the Arts District, the Main Street District, Farmers Market District, the City Center business district, the Convention Center District, and the Reunion District. “Hot spots” in this area include Uptown, Victory Park, Harwood, Oak Lawn, Dallas Design District, Trinity Groves, Turtle Creek, East Dallas
East Dallas is home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood neighborhood (and adjacent areas, including Lakewood Heights, Wilshire Heights, Lower Greenville, Junius Heights, and Hollywood Heights/Santa Monica), historic Vickery Place and Bryan Place, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue and Munger Place. Its historic district has one of the largest collections of Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired Prairie-style homes in the United States. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands, one of Dallas’s most unified middle-class neighborhoods.
Named after Dallas philanthropist, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge spans the Trinity River
South Dallas, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed, and Fair Park, home of the annual State Fair of Texas, held in late September and through mid-October. Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification in recent years, in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District. Oak Cliff was a township founded in the mid-1800s and annexed in 1903 by the city of Dallas. Today, most of the area’s northern residents are Hispanic. The ghost town of La Reunion once occupied the northern tip of Oak Cliff. South Oak Cliff’s population is a mix of African American, Hispanic, and Native American.
View of Downtown Dallas
South Side Dallas is a popular location for nightly entertainment at the NYLO rooftop patio and lounge, The Cedars Social, and the famous country bar Gilley’s. The neighbourhood has undergone extensive development and community integration. What was once an area characterized by high rates of poverty and crime is now one of the city’s most attractive social and living destinations.
Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of Pleasant Grove. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching to Seagoville in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides. Swampland and wetlands separating it from South Dallas will in the future be part of the Great Trinity Forest, a subsection of the city’s Trinity River Project which is planned to restore and preserve wetlands, newly appreciated for habitat and flood control.
Dallas is surrounded by many suburbs; three enclaves are within the city boundaries—Cockrell Hill, Highland Park, and University Park.Cityplace, Knox/Henderson, Greenville and West Village.
Baylor District Mixed
The Cedars Mixed
Civic Center District Mixed
Dallas Arts District Mixed
Dallas Farmers Market Mixed
Deep Ellum Mixed
Design District Mixed
Main Street District Mixed
Reunion District Commercial
Riverfront District Mixed
South Side Mixed
Thanksgiving Commercial Center Commercial
Victory Park Mixed
West End Historic District Mixed
websiteAlger Park/Ash Creek Residential
Buckner Terrace Residential
Caruth Terrace Residential
websiteCasa Linda Estates Residential
Casa Linda Park Residential
websiteCasa View Residential
Casa View Haven Residential
Claremont Park Residential
Edgemont Park Residential
Forest Hills Residential
Gaston Park Residential
websiteGreenland Hills Residential
Hollywood Heights Residential
Junius Heights Residential
websiteLake Park Estates Residential
websiteLakewood Heights Residential
websiteLakewood Trails Residential
Little Forest Hills Residential
Lower Greenville Residential
North Stonewall Terrace Residential
Old Lake Highlands Residential
websiteRidgewood Park Residential
Santa Monica Residential
Stonewall Terrace Residential
University Meadows Residential
websiteVickery Place Residential
websiteWhite Rock Residential
Wilshire Heights Residential
Old East Dallas
Belmont Park Residential
websiteBryan Place Residential
Deep Ellum Entertainment
websiteMunger Place Historic District Residential
Peak’s Suburban Addition Residential
websiteSwiss Avenue Residential
Abrams Place Residential
Alexander’s Village Residential
Boundbrook Oaks Estates Residential
Chimney Hill Residential
Copperfield Community Residential
Country Forest Residential
Forest Highlands Residential
Glen Oaks Residential
Hamilton Park Residential
Highlands West Residential
Highland Meadows Residential
High Oaks Addition Residential
Jackson Meadow Residential
websiteL Streets Residential
Lake Highlands Mixed
Lake Highlands Estates Residential
Lake Highlands North Residential
Lake Highlands Square Residential
Lake Ridge Estates Residential
websiteMerriman Park Estates Residential
Merriman Park North Residential
Moss Farm Residential
Moss Meadows Residential
websiteNorthwood Heights Residential
Oak Highlands Residential
Oak Tree Village Residential
Pebble Creek Residential
Richland Park Estates Residential
Rolling Trails Residential
Royal Highlands Residential
Royal Highlands Village Residential
Stultz Road Residential
Town Creek Residential
Royal Lane Village Residential
Walnut Creek Estates Residential
websiteWhispering Hills Residential
White Rock Valley Residential
Woodlands on the Creek Residential
University Manor Residential
websiteUniversity Terrace Residential
Urban Reserve Residential
websiteBent Tree Residential
websiteGreenway Parks Residential
North Park Residential
House at Preston Hollow, Dallas, Texas 2.JPG Preston Hollow Residential
Shannon Estates Residential
Vickery Meadows Residential
Far North Dallas
websiteBent Tree Residential
websitePreston Highlands Residential
websiteFar North Dallas Residential
websiteMelshire Estates Residential
websiteNorthwood Hills Residential
Platinum Corridor Commercial
Preston Center Commercial
Love Field Residential
Xvisionx Dallas Stemmons.jpg Stemmons Corridor Commercial
Arlington Park Residential
Design District Mixed
Asian Trade District Commercial
Oak Cliff Area
Arcadia Park Residential
Beckley Club Estates Residential
websiteBishop Arts District Entertainment
Stevens Park Estates Residential
websiteStevens Park Village Residential
Western Park Residential
websiteWinnetka Heights Residential
East Kessler Park Residential
Kessler Highlands Residential
Kessler Park Estates Residential
Kessler Plaza Residential
Kessler Square Residential
websiteWest Kessler Residential
websiteKidd Springs Residential
websiteKings Highway Conservation District Residential
Dallas downtown skyline seen from Lake Cliff.jpg Lake Cliff Residential
L.O. Daniel Residential
Glenn Oaks Residential
Wynnewood Hills Residential
websiteInternational Center Commercial
Katy Trail – Knox Street.jpg Knox Park Mixed
websitePerry Heights Residential
State Thomas Residential
websiteTurtle Creek Mixed
The Mondrian.jpg websiteOak Lawn Mixed
W Dallas Victory Hotel and Residences.jpg websiteVictory Park Mixed
West Village – Cityplace, Oak Lawn in Dallas.jpg websiteWest Village Mixed
Map of Southeast Dallas and its 20 communities
Arnold’s Station Residential
Buckner Park Residential
Cedar Run Residential
El Barrio (Little Mexico) Residential
Lake June Residential
Pemberton Hill Residential
Pleasant Grove Residential
Pleasant Hills Residential
Pleasant Mound Residential
Riverway Estates/Bruton Terrace Residential
Spruce Square Residential
Woodland Springs Residential
Far South Dallas
Dixon Circle Residential
Highland Hills Residential
South Central Dallas
Cedar Crest Residential
Skyline Heights Residential
Old South Dallas/Fair Park
Exposition Park Mixed
Texas Star.jpg Fair Park Entertainment
Mill City Residential
Jubilee Park Residential
Dolphin Heights Residential
Wheatley Place Residential
Monterey Gardens Residential
Edgewood (see South Boulevard/Park Row) Residential
South Boulevard/Park Row Residential
Magnolia Park Residential
Alta Park Residential
Eagle Ford Residential
websiteGreenleaf Village Residential
La Bajada Residential
La L’aceate Residential
La Loma Residential
Lake West Residential
Ledbetter Gardens Residential
Los Altos Residential
Western Heights Residential
Westmoreland Heights Residential
Bishop Arts District
Cedar Springs (sub-district of Oak Lawn)
Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat; the city lies at elevations ranging from 450 to 550 feet (137 to 168 m). The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone escarpment (also known as the “White Rock Escarpment”), rises 230 feet (70 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. South of the Trinity River, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, Grand Prairie, and Irving. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown.
Dallas, like many other cities, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a “white rock crossing” of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Its path through Dallas is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past South Dallas and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees to protect the city from frequent floods.
Since it was rerouted in the late 1920s, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below Downtown, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project, which was begun in the early 2000s and was scheduled to be completed in the 2010s. If the project materializes fully, it promises improvements to the riverfront in the form of man-made lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation upgrades.
The project area will reach for over 20 miles (32 km) in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately 44,000 acres (180 km2) in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river will encompass approximately 10,000 acres (40 km2), making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.
White Rock Lake, a reservoir built at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas’s other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the 66-acre (267,000 m2) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, on the lake’s eastern shore. White Rock Creek feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek are part of the extensive Dallas County Trails System.
Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard, a vast 22,745-acre (92 km2) reservoir in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale. To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas (Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. North Lake, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and Coppell, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, a plan the lake’s neighboring cities oppose.
Dallas has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) characteristic of the Southern Plains of the United States. It is also continental, characterized by a relatively wide annual temperature range. Located at the lower end of Tornado Alley, it is prone to extreme weather, tornadoes and hailstorms.
July and August are typically the hottest months, with an average high of 96.0 °F (36 °C) and an average low of 76.7 °F (25 °C). The all-time record high is 113 °F (45 °C), set on June 26 and 27, 1980 during the Heat Wave of 1980 at nearby Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.
Winters in Dallas are mild to cool. January is typically the coldest month, with an average daytime high of 56.8 °F (14 °C) and an average nighttime low of 37.3 °F (3 °C). The normal daily average temperature in January is 47.0 °F (8.3 °C) but sharp swings in temperature can occur, as strong cold fronts known as “Blue Northers” pass through the Dallas region, forcing daytime highs below the 50 °F (10 °C) mark for several days at a time and often between days with high temperatures above 80 °F (27 °C). Snow accumulation is seen in the city in about 70% of winter seasons, and snowfall generally occurs 1–2 days out of the year for a seasonal average of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm). Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all. The all-time record low temperature within the city is ?3 °F (?19 °C), set on January 18, 1930.
Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with moderate and pleasant weather. Vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. Springtime weather can be quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days. Autumn often brings more storms and tornado threat, but usually fewer and less severe than in spring.
Each spring, cold fronts moving south from the North will collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast, leading to severe thunderstorms with lightning, torrents of rain, hail, and occasionally, tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes have probably been the biggest natural threat to the city, as it is near the heart of Tornado Alley.
A few times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in freezing rain or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. Temperatures reaching 70 °F (21 °C) on average occur on at least 4 days each winter month. Dallas averages 26 annual nights at or below freezing, with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the all-time record as having the fewest freezing nights, with 14. During this same span of 15 years,[specify] the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below 15 °F (?9 °C), though it will generally fall below 20 °F (?7 °C) in most (67%) years. In sum, extremes and variations in winter weather are more readily seen in Dallas and Texas as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state’s location in the interior of the North American continent. The lack of any mountainous terrain to the north leaves it open to the sweep of Arctic weather systems.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. However, mild winter temperatures in the past 15 to 20 years have encouraged the horticulture of some cold-sensitive plants such as Washingtonia filifera and Washingtonia robusta palms. According to the American Lung Association, Dallas has the 12th highest air pollution among U.S. cities, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston. Much of the air pollution in Dallas and the surrounding area comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of Midlothian and from concrete installations in neighbouring Ellis County.